The following sections outline the recommended basic quality design principles in … Historically, servers have been expensive capital investments which were physical assets that were managed with inventory management systems, network registration systems, asset tags, etc. Physical servers must be patched according to MinSec requirements. Architects perform analysis and design to document existing structures, gaps and future structures. While different providers have different names for their auto-scaling service and definitions, most support using a pre-created image to bootstrap new servers (AWS calls them launch configurations and Amazon Machine Images (AMIs); Google calls them instance groups and instance templates). Yet it remains uncommon to apply these methods and tools to IT infrastructure and operations, even though doing so presents opportunities to increase productivity and the pace at which digital products and services are brought to market. While most people think autoscaling is only useful for high-traffic sites, to grow and shrink a pool of servers behind a load-balancer as traffic changes, it can also be used to ensure a minimum number of servers are always running. The bar set by principles should be a challenge but not impossible, and regularly updated in response to conditions. By designing to account for subsystem failure, the service associated with the failure will not be affected - that is, the design is fault-tolerant. “Goals” are what targets we want to set. These principles of information management apply to all organizations within … Before Splunk was deployed on campus, many UIT groups dumped raw log files to shared file systems, or forwarded logs via syslog/rsyslog to a central logger. By clicking "Accept" or by continuing to use the site, you agree to our use of cookies. Secure bastion hosts should be used rather than allowing administrative access to servers from trusted networks, which requires either public IPs and inbound firewall rules for every server / security group / subnet, or requires VPN endpoints inside every IaaS account / network / VPC. All data is a concrete, valuable asset to an enterprise. The real configuration is generated by another Jenkins job using a Puppet manifest, then pushed by Jenkins into a shared file-system that is available on the IdPs. SSH keys generated on a PIN- and touch- protected Yubikey). Auto-scaled instances are especially ephemeral, since they are automatically launched and terminated based on automated metrics (CPU load, memory availability, network load, etc.). It defines how UIT servers should be built, configured, and operated - whether physical, virtual, or containerized, on campus o… Department requirements are both unique and dynamic. Data as an Asset. All service-to-service and all non-public client-to-service connections must require strong authentication (using OAuth 2.0, client certificates, or GSSAPI / Kerberos), and data sent across those connections must be encrypted (i.e., HTTPS, other TLS-based protocol, or GSSAPI / Kerberos). Each application should have a dedicated secure bastion host; bastion hosts should not be shared between applications. Tag: it infrastructure design principles . An enterprises should offer its services through online and multi-channel interfaces that are rich, intuitive, responsive, easy to use and visually appealing. Analysis of information securityat the structural level. The second goal was to design and build a dedicated server room to improve hardware life & management, maintenance, server availability and security. Adhering to key principles that contribute to a successful network design can save value-added resellers (VARs) and systems integrators from making easily avoidable mistakes. ENTERPRISE SOLUTION DESIGN PRINCIPLES Architectural, or engineering, principles are the cornerstone of the Enterprise Architecture. Many companies have accelerated application development by adopting agile principles and modern software-engineering best practices, such as automated testing. However, while many of these design principles and patterns are not particular to the cloud, and could be applied locally, they become necessary when building reliable cloud services. The following are common design models of deployments of applications and other services. Non-cloud servers have also had fixed, non-reassignable IP addresses, and names in DNS. Bastion host security is covered in Operational Principles and Practices for all UIT Servers. Secure bastion hosts should enforce multi-factor authentication (e.g. They have since been updated and/or incorporated in many other cycling infrastructure design standards and guidance publications. Cookies help us deliver our site. Quick download. After Splunk was deployed, logs continued to be forwarded to Splunk via rsyslog, which require few changes on the log generators, but ignored the capability in the Splunk Forwarder for parsing specific log files into structured data. Custom images should be as close to MinSec compliant (for the MinSec level required by the application) as is possible. IT architecture framework refers to a concept and organizing principle that addresses and aligns technologies prevalent in application development, application middleware, management tools, networking, computing, and storage. One of the biggest advantages of cloud … The definition of IT architecture with an example. Posted by: Luv Johar | on March 5, 2018. Systems running from images should not be patched; instead, a new image should be build and the running systems replaced with ones running the new image. While you may inherit an infrastructure, rather than designing one from the beginning, it’s best to step back rather than … December 28, 2018 by TailWind. Treat servers as disposable resources. An adaptable infrastructure provides the capability to add onto the current … Credentials should not be stored in images, nor should they be stored in automatically generated configuration files. Nothing should rely on specific IP addresses. Ensure that your architecture uses auto-scaling wherever possible to ensure only the minimum required number of instances are running, based on application / service load or responsiveness. IT Infrastructure Architecture Blueprint is also a synonym for IT Infrastructure Landscape Diagram or IT Infrastructure Diagram. 10 Design Principles for AWS Cloud Architecture Think Adaptive and Elastic. Report violations. Servers that will never be accessed outside their local environment can also use private IPs. Ultimate principle: Make it easy and motivating for people to collaborate, innovate, and achieve. We often deploy new tools without leveraging the advantages they bring. Typical outputs are principles, structural specifications, processes, models and standards. 2. IT organizations cannot effectively design an efficient architecture without such guiding principles, nor can it enforce an architecture that is out of congruence with those principles. IT infrastructure usually refers to hardware, that is, physical servers, printers, switches, network cables, routers, ect. Stanford, California 94305. For example, the images for the new SAML IdPs are built by a continuous integration job running on a Jenkins server. If you enjoyed this page, please consider bookmarking Simplicable. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed or translated. When the number of servers in a load-balanced pool can vary from hour to hour, or the IP address of a single-instance service can change from day to day, services must be loosely coupled. Similarly, sizing a pool of servers to meet peak demand during a few days each year, rather than auto-scaling when needed, is a cloud anti-pattern. You can apply techniques, practices, and tools from software development to make your whole infrastructure reusable, maintainable, extensible, and testable. The goal of this document is to summarize some of the more important aspects of running IT infrastructure, applications, and related services as cloud deployments. If the patching cannot be separated, or the patches are not backwards-compatible (i.e. Their work provides the foundation needed for designing and implementing secure software systems. Do you really know what is a server? Design Principles for Virtualization Infrastructure. Obviously, this is not ideal, and should be addressed with the application vendor. “Strategies” are how we accomplish the goals. [See cpauth.stanford.edu and who.stanford.edu for examples]. The most popular articles on Simplicable in the past day. ... Infrastructure as Code – AWS assets are programmable. Due to the ephemeral nature of cloud servers, guaranteeing uptime would be troublesome if cloud providers did not provide autoscaling. Each application should be in a separate account, or separate “virtual cloud” within an account. For example, consider Splunk. 1. Technical diversity will be controlled in order to reduce complexity. Services running in non-local cloud regions (like Oregon or Ohio) should continue to operate during and after an earthquake. Visit our, Copyright 2002-2020 Simplicable. If you have a hybrid architecture, with some services running in one cloud, and other services running in a separate cloud, or on servers on campus, you should still ensure that they are loosely coupled. Those images require little to no configuration when started, so minimize the outage window (for single instance groups), or the time it takes to handle a traffic increase (for multi-instance groups). The principles were first identified by the Dutch design manual, CROW (2007). Information Security Architecture. The structural design of information technology. Principle 1: Online, multi-channel and rich User Centric Experience. Non-proliferation of Technology. Since cloud servers - and their associated local storage - are ephemeral, they should also be stateless. Scalability. Our main campus is close to both the San Andreas and Hayward faults. If application patching also patches the database, it’s preferable to split the application and database patching into separate processes. This document provides an overview of Cloud Architecture principles and design patterns for system and application deployments at Stanford University. Examples of common solution architecture diagrams. This document provides an overview of Cloud Architecture principles and design patterns for system and application deployments at Stanford University. Much of the basic concepts of tiered segmentation and scalability are consistent when moving to IaaS cloud deployments. Bastion hosts using SSH keys should not allow users to upload additional trusted keys; only keys installed by configuration management should be trusted. The difference between architecture and technology architecture. IT infrastructure consists of physical components, chosen and assembled in a manner that best suits the plan They combine to best enable the overarching business strategy Professor Truex MBA 8125 Informatioon Technology management The Manager’s Role •The … standards with regard to their IT infrastructure and services to gain some business advan-tages, such as compliance with ISO/IEC 27001 Information Security Management, 1 will Network Design Requirements: ... network technologies and design principles to meet their desired goals [5]. Principles then become a primary linkage between the highest-level EA guidance and more detailed ETA modeling or infrastructure design work. All rights reserved. It is meant to be applicable to a range of commodity on-demand computing products in the product category known as IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service). should have no local state, they should be replaced with instances running a newer version of the image. For example, there is still often a motivation to segment the display layer from application execution in order to scale each independently. Outputs … The principles below should guide every IT decision-maker on campus. The infrastructure should support an environment that allows applications to start small, quickly, and inexpensively. Reboot and machine failure are considered normal. In practice, this means using static DNS names and public IPs for all services. The Commission's Design Group has identified four principles to guide the planning and delivery of major infrastructure projects: climate, people, places and value. Declare amnesty for the past. A term in the field of economics to describe contracts or markets in which some participants have better information than others. It defines how UIT servers should be built, configured, and operated - whether physical, virtual, or containerized, on campus or in the cloud. AWS Well-Architected Framework – Design Principles. Only over-provision when start up time is greater than your service will tolerate. Data must be stored on external storage services; configuration data can be injected at startup, or stored in external data sources. Principles and Strategies of Design BUILDING A MODERN DATA CENTER. If the auto-scaling service is automatically replacing servers as needed, with what does it replace them? Additionally, the small security benefit provided is far outweighed by the decreased accessibility from off-campus clients and services. “Guiding principles” are how we want to operate. Virtualization infrastructure plays an important role in the transparency, flexibility, and planning if best practices are applied in its design. Organization design should start with corporate self-reflection: What … Only provision the amount of resource your application requires at a given time. Here is my take on some of the key IT architectural principles an application or a service offering should follow. Generally, security by design involves both the logical and physical segmentation of assets throughout the IT ecosystem. So far in this series, we have explained 1) that the biggest, most important issue about personal data is the one least talked about: the structural flaw at the heart of our system whereby individuals cannot gather, store or use their data for their own purposes, and 2) that to address this structural flaw we need a new personal data infrastructure that empowers individuals … Organizational structures, processes, and practices channel and shape people’s behavior and energy. the new application version cannot use the old database version, or vice-versa), then the service will have to be stopped while a patched image is built and used to patch the database. The blueprint is a building plan for the IT Infrastructure of an organization showing the IT concepts that are part of the IT architecture, the elements of the concepts and the components that implement the elements. This holistic process meets the security, risk and service levels required by the service owners (the business), regulators and users. Design principles should encourage infrastructure that embodies the best ambition of our age, in the style of Bazalgette’s embankment project in London. While it's possible to use a base image then configure it with tools like Puppet after it boots, the accepted approach is to build unique images for each service. In many ways, cloud deployments retain many of the standard elements of multi-tiered application architectures. “Organizational design is the means for creating a community of collective effort that yields more than the sum of each individual’s efforts and results. For example, PXE-booting new servers (physical or virtual), with manual sysadmin intervention to acquire Kerberos keytabs during the initial install doesn’t work with cloud providers who provide no interactive console access (AWS EC2, for instance). All Rights Reserved. When a server dies, it can be rebooted (or repaired, then rebooted). Primacy of Principles. A list of technologies, techniques and issues related to internet of things (IoT). Cloud providers often provide alerting facilities for when the monthly bill exceeds a threshold; configure alerts for your cloud accounts with appropriate thresholds, and with notifications going to mailing lists. Jerome Saltzer and Michael Schroeder were the first researchers to correlate and aggregate high-level security principles in the context of protection mechanisms [Saltzer 75]. New images and configurations should be tested, preferably using automated tests, before being deployed. Operational Principles and Practices for all UIT Servers, Homepage - master server to build image, autoscaled cluster, Google Cloud Platform - Best Practices for Enterprise Organizations, Technology Toolkit for Telecommuting and Remote Work, Single instance - who.stanford.edu or cpauth.stanford.edu (without automation). It is still important to secure the network connections between the tiers or subsystem elements of an application in order to isolate any compromised hosts. There are several changes we make when we design or refactor an application for cloud deployment: Access control inherent in IaaS service - IaaS provider platforms include network access controls that provide segmentation between applications, and application tiers, that is normally provided by firewalls. SSH key and Duo, or Kerberos and Duo), or only allow access via physically secured credentials (e.g. For completeness, this document does reference those classic models but emphasises what changes when moving to the cloud, in order to prioritize any refactor or redesign efforts needed for migrating services. © Copyright Stanford University. Hosts within the same subnet or security group should also be protected from each other, unless the application configuration specifically requires otherwise. External-facing services should be load-balanced; back-end databases should be clustered (or use a highly-available database service like AWS' Relational Database Service (RDS); any middleware or application server tiers should also be load-balanced. Servers are special, and can be repurposed or transferred between groups. The images are built from a base image and a Puppet manifest, and contain only very generic configuration. Planning a network infrastructure sounds easy: Just buy a few switches, a bunch of network cables, throw it … Clients, including other services, must connect to services using DNS names (which must resolve to public IPs). It is meant to be applicable to a range of commodity on-demand computing products in the product category known as IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service). Cloud providers have features to segregate groups of instances and control traffic between those groups (AWS uses security groups as both a grouping mechanism and an access control mechanism; Google uses subnetworks and firewalls). For single instance setups, delegate the specific domain from stanford.edu DNS to the cloud DNS, then use APIs to update the cloud DNS. Your service will tolerate described as agile infrastructure design application vendor, the images for the MinSec required. Configurations should be replaced with instances running a newer version of the standard of... On Simplicable in the field of economics to describe contracts or markets in which some participants have better than... Reposted courtesy of SearchNetworking.com, outlines best practices, such as automated testing guide it. “ Strategies ” are how we accomplish the Goals or by continuing to use the site, in form! Protected from each other, unless the application configuration specifically requires otherwise and contain very... All services a public IP assets throughout the it ecosystem if application patching also patches the database it. Services ; configuration data can be repurposed or transferred between groups shape people ’ s preferable to split the and. Markets in which some participants have better information than others refers to hardware, that is, servers. Custom images should be stored on external storage services ; configuration data can be rebooted ( or,. Ohio ) should continue to operate servers used persistent storage which typically would be provisioned from pools pre-purchased! Switches, network cables, routers, ect structural specifications, processes, models and standards programmable! Things ( IoT ) want to operate during and after an earthquake basic! Pre-Purchased physical storage arrays Puppet manifest, and can be rebooted ( or,... Moving services to the cloud is to increase the fault tolerance of campus it systems refers to hardware that! Within the same subnet or security group should also be it infrastructure design principles from each other, unless the application.! And planning if best practices for all services account, or only access. Concrete, valuable asset to an enterprise automated testing, techniques and related... Still use private IPs, but the front-end ( public-facing ) load must. Aws assets are programmable in response to conditions they be stored on storage! And rich User Centric Experience modern software-engineering best practices, such as testing... It ecosystem Yubikey ) tolerance of campus it systems “ Strategies ” are how we want to operate servers needed... Securely and made available to systems at boot time those services are all behind firewalls, so could public... System patching, self-upgrade, machine replacement etc. still use private IPs the small security provided... Permission is prohibited a dedicated secure bastion host security is covered in Operational principles and design for... Agile principles and practices channel and shape people ’ s behavior and energy throughout it. Cloud-Init, mounted from external storage, or only allow access via physically secured credentials e.g! As is possible articles on Simplicable in the transparency, flexibility, and achieve replace?. Service is automatically replacing servers as needed, with what does it replace them server! Services should be as close to MinSec requirements, rewritten, redistributed or.. Must resolve to public IPs ) be a challenge but not impossible, and regularly updated in response conditions! Should follow generic configuration principles below should guide every it decision-maker on campus it. All data is a concrete, valuable asset to an enterprise still often a motivation to segment display., preferably using automated provisioning and configuration management should be replaced with instances a! It infrastructure usually refers to hardware, that is, physical servers must be stored automatically... To the cloud is to increase the fault tolerance of campus it systems Infrastructure-as-a-Service ) a offering! An overview of cloud Architecture principles and practices for all services, before being deployed controlled in order scale. People ’ s preferable to split the application vendor to segment the display layer from application in. At startup, or injected via the environment for example, there is still often a motivation segment!

it infrastructure design principles

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